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“疑问词   ever”是近年来高考英语的一个考查热点,在各版本的中学英语教材中出现频率较高,而且是学生理解和掌握的一个难点。从不同角度论述这方面内容的文章很多,本文试图别辟蹊径,简单明了地归纳讲解这一问题。

“疑问词   ever ”可分为两类,“疑问代词   ever ”: whatever / whichever / whoever (宾格 whomever )和“疑问副词   ever ”: wherever / whenever / however.

不论是“疑问代词   ever ”还是“疑问副词   ever ”,其意义都是“不管 / 无论   该疑问词的本义”。

1. “疑问代词   ever”可引导两种类型的从句,即让步状语从句和名词性从句(主语从句、宾语从句)。

(1)引导让步状语从句。此时 whatever / whoever / whichever 分别等于“ no matter   what / who / which”。例如:

Whatever happened, he wouldn't say a word. = No matter what happened, he wouldn't say a word.

Whoever says so, it is wrong. = No matter who says so, it is wrong.

Whichever dictionary you (may) take, you will have to pay at least 20 dollars. = No matter which dictionary you (may) take, you will have to pay at least 20 dollars.

注意:这类从句中应用一般现在时表将来,从句中也常用情态动词 may / might .

(2)引导名词性从句。例如:

Whoever smokes here will be punished. (主语从句)

Beggars will eat whatever they are given. (宾语从句)

Whichever he likes will be given to him. (主语从句)

You may invite whoever / whomever you like. (常用 whoever 代替 whomever)

此时它们都不能换成“ no matter   疑问词”的形式,但 whoever 等于 anyone who, whatever 等于 anything that.

2. “疑问副词  ever ”: wherever / whenever / however 一般只能引导一种类型的从句,即让步状语从句,此时它们分别等于“ no matter   where / when / how ”。例如:

Wherever he goes (may go). I'll follow him. = No matter where he goes (may go),I'll follow him.

Whenever I wisited him, he was always busy working. = No matter when I visited him, he was always busy working.

However late he is, his mother will wait for him to have dinner together. = No matter how late he is, his mother will wait for him to have dinner together.

注意:当 however 用作连接副词时也可引导名词性从句,而 whenever/ wherever 则不能引导名词性从句。例如:

I'll give you however much money you need. (宾语从句,此时 however 不能改成 no matter how )。

3. 另外, whatever / whichever / whoever 与 whenever / wherever /???? however 分别可相当于 what / which / who 与 when / where / how 的强调式,引起的特殊疑问句往往是简单句,与原疑问词的意思、用法完全相同,只是表达的语气更为强烈,翻译时可加上“到底;究竟”等。例如:

What(ever) are you doing ? 你(到底)在干什么?

Which(ever) do you want to buy ? 你(究竟)要买哪一个?

Who(ever) told you such a foolish story? (究竟)是谁讲给你这么蠢的事?

When(ever) can I enjoy a long vacation? (究竟)什么时候才能给我放个长假呢?

Where(ever) did you leave your dictionary? 你(究竟)把词典放哪儿了?

How(ever) did you collect so much money? 你(到底)是怎样筹到这么多钱的?

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